Education and learning The natural world

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Education and learning.

take (v) to perform an action: I decided to take the exam, even though I knew I was going to fail.

pass (v) to be successful in an examination or test, by achieving a satisfactory standard: Do you think you’ll pass?

read (v) to look at and understand words in a letter, book, newspaper, etc: I read a few chapters every night.

study (v) to do work such as reading and homework: You need to study hard if you want to pass.

test (n) a set of written or spoken questions that is used for finding out how much someone knows about a subject: Did you get a good mark in your physics test?

exam (n) an important test of your knowledge, especially one that you take at school or university: I’m taking the exam in June.

primary (adj) relating to the education of children between the ages of about five and eleven: I really didn’t want to leave my primary school.

secondary (adj) relating to the education of children between the ages of 11 and 16 or 18: Once Ian went to secondary school, he really developed a lot of self-confidence.

high [school] (adj) in the UK, a school for children between the ages of 11 and 18; in the US, a school for children between the ages of 14 and 18: I hated high school because everyone was worried about being popular.

colleague (n) someone who works in the same organization or department as you: Friends and colleagues will remember him with affection.

classmate (n) someone who is in your class at school: I get on well with all my classmates.

prefect (n) in some schools in the UK, an older student who controls the activities of younger students and helps them to obey the rules: At our school, the headmaster chooses the prefects at the start of each academic year.

pupil(n) someone who goes to school or who has lessons in a particular subject: All the pupils stood up as the head teacher entered the room.

student (n) someone who goes to a university, college or school: Jennifer is one of my best students.

qualifications (n) something such as a degree or a diploma that you get when you successfully finish a course of study: Simon left school with no qualifications.

qualities (n) positive features of a person’s character: What qualities do you most admire in others?

count (v) to calculate how many people or things there are in a group: All the votes have been counted.

measure (v) to find the exact size, amount, speed or rate of something: We measured from the back of the house to the fence.

degree (n) a course of study at a university, or the qualification that you get after completing the course: She’s doing a degree at Exeter University.

certificate (n) an official document that proves that you have passed an examination or have successfully completed a course: Doctors often put their certificates up in their offices to show that they are qualified.

results (n) the mark that a student gets in an examination: You should get your exam results next week.

speak (v) to be able to talk in a particular language: Do you speak Chinese?

talk (v) to speak, or to have a conversation: Can their baby talk yet?

lesson (n) a period of time in which students are taught about a subject in school: Don’t forget to bring your books to Monday’s lesson.

subject (n) something that you learn or teach in a school, for example English, mathematics or biology: I prefer science subjects, like physics and biology, to arts subjects.

achieve (v) to succeed in doing or having something: We have achieved what we set out to do.

reach (v) to get to a particular point in time, or to a particular stage in a progress: The children have reached the age when they want more privacy.

task (n) something that you have to do, often something that is difficult or unpleasant: Ken began the difficult task of organizing the information.

effort (n) physical or mental energy needed to do something: Writing a book takes a lot of time and effort.

know (v) to be familiar with someone or something, for example because you have met someone before or been to a place before: Do you know Terry Davis?

recognise (v) to know someone or something because you have seen, heard or met them before: I recognised the house from your description.

                                                                           -2-

teach (v) to help student to learn something in a school, college or university by giving lessons: She teaches children with learning difficulties.

learn (v) to gain knowledge or experience of something, for example by being taught: What did you learn at school?

 

Exercise 1. Complete the sentences using the words in the box with the correct –ed or –ing endings. There may be more than one correct answer.

*bore *excite *fascinate * interest *thrill *tire

  1. We were ____________and wanted to sleep after staying up all night the night before.
  2. Going on the hot-air balloon ride was a(n) ____________experience – I’ll never forget it!
  3. Everyone was talking a lot because they were __________ about going on the school trip.
  4. My brother was not ____________ in having his picture taken.
  5. We weren’t very happy because we’d just had a(n)______________lesson.
  6. I thought the lesson was ___________ — I learned so much that I hadn’t known before!

Exercise 2. Match the adjectives to their opposites.

  1. boring a awful/ terrible
  2. tired/ exhausted   b ready/ prepared
  3. perfect c exciting/ interesting/ fascinating
  4. worried/ anxious/ nervous   d fresh/ refreshed
  5. patient e careless
  6. funny f calm/ relaxed
  7. surprised   g impatient
  8. careful h serious

Exercise 3. Complete the text using the words in the box.

  • application *campus *college *courses *degree *diploma *institutions *requirements

Whatever the differences between education systems around the world may be, they have much in common. Some people will find a job after secondary school, but many will go on to form of higher education. There are lots of 1______________ to choose from, all offering a range of 2_____________ in different subjects. Some of these are quite specialized. You could, for example, go to a police or military academy, or a technical 3______________, where you might study for a(n) 4______________. For many, university is the goal. Wherever you choose to study, you will have to make your 5_____________ and satisfy their entry 6___________ before you get a place. You might also have to attend an interview. Once you get in, you might live on 7___________ or find your own accommodation nearby. Three or four years of study will lead to a(n) 8____________, also called a B.A. (Bachelor of Arts) or a B.Sc. (Bachelor of Science), which is the minimum qualification some employers ask for.

Postgraduate education comes after university, when you could choose to study for a master’s or a doctorate.

Exercise 4. Complete the sentences with the words in the list.

  • enthusiastic *gloomy *hard-working *lazy *noisy *positive *quiet *strict

The best schools are where….

The teachers are 1___________about their subject.

The students are 2_____________ and polite.

The lessons are 3___________, calm and interesting.

The atmosphere is happy and 4_____________.

The worst schools are where ….

The teachers are bad-tempered and too 5____________.

The students are 6_______________ and rude.

The lessons are too 7____________ or boring.

The atmosphere is dark and 8___________________.

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Weather and the environment.

urban (adj) relating to towns and cities: People moved to the urban areas for jobs.

suburban (adj) in a suburb, relating to a suburb, or typical of a suburb: We live a suburban life in a quiet residential area on the outskirts of town.

rural (adj) relating to the countryside, or in the countryside: I’d find rural life difficult after living in a city for so long.

smog (n) polluted air that forms a cloud close to the ground: Smog is a serious form of pollution in many large cities.

fog (n) thick clouds that form close to the ground and are difficult to see through: Driving in fog can be very dangerous.

smoke (n) a grey, black or white cloud that is burning: A column of black smoke slowly rose above the building.

mist (n) a mass of small drops of water in the air close to the ground: The whole valley was covered with mist this morning.

weather (n) the conditions that exist in the atmosphere, for example whether it is hot, cold, sunny or wet: The hot weather will continue through the weekend.

climate (n) the climate of a country or region is the type of weather it has: Mexico is renowned for its hot climate and spicy food.

forecast (n) a statement about what is likely to happen, usually relating to the weather, business or the economy: Did you hear a weather forecast today?

prediction (n) a statement about what you think will happen in the future: My prediction is that there’ll be an election within six months.

waste (n) the useless materials, substances or parts that are left after you have used something: Many factories have stopped pumping waste into rivers.

litter (n) things that people have dropped on the ground in a public place, making it untidy: I wish the tourists here wouldn’t drop so much litter on the ground.

rubbish (n) things that you throw away because they are no longer useful: The streets were littered with rubbish.

clean (adj) not dirty or polluted: Go and put on a clean shirt.

clear (adj) if the sky is clear, there are no clouds: We were just lying on the ground looking up at the clear, blue sky.

pour (v) to rain very hard: The thunder and lightning stopped, but it continued to pour.

drizzle (v) to rain very lightly: It was only drizzling when I left so I didn’t bother taking an umbrella with me.

flood (v) to cover a place with water, or to become covered with water: Water burst through the dam and flooded local villages.

environment (n) the natural world, including the land, water, air, plants and animals: Industrial development is causing widespread damage to the environment.

surroundings (n) a place and all the things in it: She soon became accustomed to her new surroundings.

wind (n) a natural current of air that moves fast enough for you to feel it: A cold wind blew.

reservoir (n) a lake, often an artificial one, where water is stored so that it can be supplied to houses, factories, etc: They’re planning to build a new reservoir to supply water for the area.

lake (n) a large area of water surrounded by land: There were some boys swimming in the lake.

puddle (n) a small pool of water that is left on the ground after it has rained: Our dog loves jumping in puddles.

pond (n) an area of water that is smaller than a lake: My grandparents have got a small pond in their garden.

thunder (n) the loud noise that you sometimes hear in the sky during a storm: Carol jumped under the bed when she heard the thunder.

lightning (n) the bright flashes of light that you see in the sky during a storm: The ship was struck by lightning soon after it left the port.

global (adj) including or affecting the whole world: The global economy has become increasingly unstable.

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worldwide (adj) happening or existing all over the world: This is a worldwide network of more than 100 organisations.

plain (n) a large area of land: There’s a large, flat plain between two mountain ranges.

land (n) an area of ground, especially one used for a particular purpose such as farming or building: The land around here is very fertile.

field (n) an area of land that is used for keeping animals or growing food: That’s a field of wheat over there.

desert (n) a large area of land with few plants and dry weather: The Sahara is one of the biggest deserts in the world.

extinct (adj) if something such as a type of animal or plant is extinct, it no longer exists: A number of plants and insects in the rainforests have already become extinct.

endangered (adj) if someone such as a type of animal or plant is endangered, it may soon become extinct: What can we do to help protect endangered species?

recycle (v) to treat waste materials so that they can be used again: You should recycle those newspapers and bottles.

reuse (v) to use something again: Once you’ve recorded a film onto a video cassette, you can reuse the tape by just recording over the original film.

Exercise 1. Complete the sentences with the words in the list

*creatures *environmental *forces *land *major *national *ranging *unattended

  1. It’s a very bad idea to leave a campfire _____________.
  2. Wildfires, earthquakes and floods are destructive ______________ of nature.
  3. It’s wonderful to have the chance to see forest __________living in their natural habitat.
  4. It took firefighters a week to get the ____________ blaze under control.
  5. The government turned this area into a(n) ____________park a hundred years ago.
  6. As dozens of people lost their homes, the fire was considered a(n) __________ disaster.
  7. There are laws that help provide ______________ protection against those who want to damage nature.
  8. Knowing how to farm, by using the soil properly, is a part of good __________ management.

 

Exercise 2. Make the lists using these synonyms and near-synonyms of the words in bold.

considerate *countryside *damaging *devastating *educated *encounter *environment *fight *harmful *instruction *little *responsible *skilled *small *struggle *successful *thoughtful *trained *training *university *useful *valuable *wildlife *youthful

careful___________________________________________________________________________

qualified_________________________________________________________________________

nature ___________________________________________________________________________

destructive ________________________________________________________________________

effective__________________________________________________________________________

battle _____________________________________________________________________________

young ____________________________________________________________________________

 

Exercise 3. Complete these sentences with the words in the list.

farms *garden *life *plant *reserve *produce *smog *spill

  1. They’re creating an urban ____________where the old factory used to be.
  2. There’s a nature _________ outside of town where you can see lots of animals.
  3. There’s a huge variety of animal ____________ in the Amazon rainforest.
  4. In Canada, it’s sometimes difficult to get fresh ___________during the winter months.
  5. I heard they’re finally going to close that horrible coal-burning car ______________.
  6. Because of the oil ______________, many fish died and many birds and animals lost their homes.
  7. We saw several wind _____________ when we were in California – there were hundreds of windmills producing energy.
  8. There is a thick layer of brown ___________ covering the city – you can hardly breathe!

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Education and learning. Vocabulary

Phrasal verbs

catch on understand get on with continue doing
come (a)round (to) be persuaded to change your mind (about) give in stop making an effort to achieve sth difficult
cross out draw a line through sth written keep up with stay at the same level as
dawn on if sth dawns on you, you realise it for the first time sail through do sth or deal with sth very easily
deal with handle, cope with set out explain, describe or arrange sth in a clear and detailed way
drop out (of) leave school, etc before you have finished a course think over consider
get at try to express

Phrases and collocations

attention pay attention (on sth/sb); attract (sb’s) attention; draw (sb’s) attention to sth
break have/take a break (from sth/doing); lunch break; commercial break; give sb a break
discussion have a discussion (with sb) about/on sth/doing
exam take/do/have/pass/fail an exam; sit (for) an exam
homework do your homework; have homework (to do)
idea question an idea; have an idea; bright idea; have no idea (about)
learn have a lot to learn about sth/doing; learn (how) to do
lesson go to/have a lesson; double lesson; learn a/your lesson; teach sb a lesson
mind make up your mind(about sth/doing); bear (sth) in mind; in two minds about sth/doing; change your mind (about sth/doing); cross your mind; to my mind; (not) mind if
opinion in my opinion; give/express your.an opinion(of/about sth/doing); hold/have an opinion (of/ about sth/doing)
pass pass sth (over) to sb; pass an exam/ test/ etc; pass a building/ etc
point see/ take sb’s point (about sth/doing); (see) the point in/ of sth/ doing; there’s no point in sth/ doing; make a point (of doing)
sense make sense of sth; it makes sense (to do); sense of humour/ taste/ sight/etc
suggestion make/ accept a suggestion

 

Word patterns

able to do fail to do similar to sth/sb/doing
admire sb (for sth/doing) hope to do; hope that study sth; for sth
boast at/ about sth/ doing (to sb) learn about sth/ doing; learn to do; learn by doing succeed in sth/ doing
capable of doing settle for/on sth suitable for sth/ doing; suitable to do
congratulate sb on sth/ doing

 

Word formation

academy academic, academically improve improvement, improved solve solution, (un)solvable
attend attention, (in)attentive(ly) intense intensity, intensify, intensely study student, studies, studious
behave behaviour literate illiterate, (il)literacy, literature teach teacher, taught
certify certificate, certified reason (un)reasonable, (un)reasonably, reasoning think thought, (un)thinkable, thoughtful, thoughtless
educate education, educator, educational(ly) revise revision, revised understand (mis)understanding, (mis)understood, understandable, understandably
fail failure, failing scholar scholarship, scholarly, scholastic

                                                                                 -6-

Weather and the environment. Vocabulary.

Phrasal verbs

call for require; need; demand get(sb) down make sb feel sad or lose hope
call off cancel put down to suggest that sth is the result of
clear up become brighter and better (for weather) put out make sth stop burning
cut off make a place difficult or impossible to enter, leave or communicate with; disconnect set in start and be likely to continue for a while (for rain, winter, an economic depression, etc)
die down become less noisy, powerful or active stand for represent (for abbreviations and symbols); put up with
do up repair; paint or improve tear down destroy or remove (for buildings, statues, etc)
face up to accept sth and try to deal with it throw away get rid of, discard

Phrases and collocations

control lose/take/have control (of sth); in control; out of control
effect have an effect (on sth/sb); take effect
end in the end; at the end (of sth); come to an end; come to/ reach the end (of sth); happy ending
floor on the floor; on the ground/ first/ second/ etc floor
fuss make/ cause a fuss (about sth/doing)
long (for) as long as; (for) a long time; take a long time (to do); long to do; long for sth (to do)
look have/ take a look at sth/ sb; look like sth/sb; look at/ for sth/ sb
mess have a mess (of sth); in a mess
responsibility have/ take (the) responsibility for sth/ doing
shower take/ have a shower; a rain shower; a light. Heavy shower of rain
sight catch/ lose sight of sth/sb; in sight of sth; at first sight
waste a waste of time; waste your time; industrial/ household waste
weather weather forecast; under the weather
world all over the world; around the world; throughout the world; the whole world; in the world; world record

Word patterns

aware of sth; aware that expect sth/ sb (to do);expect that hard to do; hard doing
covered in/ with sth familiar with sth; familiar to sb prevent sth; prevent sb from doing; prevent sth from happening
disappointed with/ by sth; in sb famous for sth/ doing short of sth; short on sth
expect (for) sth/ doing glance at sth/ sb warn sb about/ against sth/ doing; warn sb of sth; warn sb not to do; warn (sb) that

Word formation

accurate accurately, inaccurate(ly), (in)accuracy globe global(ly) nature (un)natural(ly)
danger dangerous(ly); endanger; endangered great greatly, greatness neighbour neighbourly, neighbouring, neighbourhood
develop (un)developed, developing, developer, development harm harmful(ly), harmless(ly), (un)harmed pollute (un)polluted, pollution, pollutant
environment environmental(ly), environmentalist likely unlikely, likelihood reside residential, resident, residence
extreme extremely, extremity, extremist low lower, lowness sun sunny, sunshine
freeze froze, frozen, freezing, freezer

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Essay writing  „Education“

Task 1 Comment on the following statement:

Many schools in Russia require all students to wear school uniforms, while in others, students can decide what to wear at school.

What’s your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?

Write 200-250 words.

Use the following plan:

  • make an introduction (state the problem)
  • express your personal opinion and give 2-3 reasons for your opinion
  • express an opposing opinion and give 1-2 reasons for this opposing opinion
  • explain why you don’t agree with the opposing opinion
  • draw a conclusion restating your position

ex.1 Read the introduction from a student’s essay. Why will the writer NOT score maximum points for the content?

Many schools in Russia require all students to wear a school uniform, while in others, students can decide what to wear at school. In my school we have to wear a uniform too. The girls should wear blue skirts and jackets and the boys – blue suits.

Rewrite the introduction according to the rules of essay writing. Restate the question in the task in different words.

Require all students to wear: ____________________________________________________________

Can decide what to wear at school:______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Exercise 2. Read paragraph 2 of the essay and rewrite the sentences in the correct order.

That is why it may be easier to have a uniform than to detail and specify independently chosen clothing. Secondly, parents often spend much money on teenagers’ clothes following their interest in fashion and pressure, Finally, wearing school uniforms emphasizes membership and group identity, fostering school and community spirit, Firstly, school administrators often face a complicated task setting a dress code. There are a few reasons why I support the idea of introducing a school uniform. Therefore, school uniforms refocus this issue.

——————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————Exercise 3. Read the notes for arguments against wearing school uniforms and match them with justifications. Make up sentences using the correct linking words.

  1. Uniforms interfere with students’ rights for self-expression
  2. They are an unnecessary expense.
  3. They don’t prevent bad behaviour
  4. It is not good for students’ self-esteem.

Justifications:

  1. they can’t prevent students from expressing unpopular or inappropriate views on other ways
  2. teenagers can’t express their tastes and personality
  3. they have to wear something unattractive
  4. can create economic problems

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Exercise 4. Plan your essay. What opinion are you going to support? Complete the following paragraph plan for your essay, making notes on what you are going to include in each paragraph.

                                              An opinion essay plan

Paragraph 1 Introduction: restating the question in the task in different words:

 

 

 

Paragraph 2 My opinion:

1)

2)

 

 

Paragraph 3 Other people’s opinion:

1)

2)

 

 

Paragraph 4 Why I don’t agree with it:

1)

 

 

Paragraph 5 Conclusion: restating my opinion

 

 

 

 

Exercise 5. Write your essay. Follow the plan in the task. Check it for vocabulary, grammar and spelling mistakes.

Task 2 Comment on the following statement:

Getting marcs doesn’t motivate students to study

What’s your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?

Exercise 1. Answer the following questions expressing your opinion. Use the following vocabulary to speak on the problem:

To be abolished, to be good at, to drill, to understand subject properly, to feel embarrassed, to fail, to get a good/ bad mark, to deserve, to do tests, to take exams, to encourage, to arouse student’s interest, to be a good stimulus, to rank according to marks, to get good knowledge

  • Do the marks that students get make them learn better? Why?

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

  • Do marks arouse competition among students? How is it beneficial for them?

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

  • Do students with high marks have more chances to go to university and then find a good job?

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

  • Do they show the true picture of students’ progress? Why?

                                                                     -9-________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

  • Can getting a mark be stressful? Why?

 

______________________________________________________________________________________

 

Exercise 2. What are the arguments for and against getting marks? Complete the following table:

For getting marks Against getting marks
·         They are signals that show students that they should study better…

·

·

·         They don’t show the true picture of students’progress….

·

·

 

Exercise 3. Develop your arguments adding some justifications. Use the vocabulary from exercise 1.

—————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————

 

Exercise 4. Plan your essay. What opinion are you going to support? Complete the following paragraph plan for your essay, making notes on what you are going to include in each paragraph.

                                              An opinion essay plan

Paragraph 1 Introduction: restating the question in the task in different words:

 

 

 

Paragraph 2 My opinion:

1)

2)

 

 

Paragraph 3 Other people’s opinion:

1)

2)

 

 

Paragraph 4 Why I don’t agree with it:

1)

 

 

Paragraph 5 Conclusion: restating my opinion

 

 

 

Exercise 5. Write your essay. Follow the plan in the task. Check it for vocabulary, grammar and spelling mistakes.

 

                                                                          -10-

Task 3 Comment on the following statement:

It is believed that in the future teachers will be completely replaced by computers.

What’s your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?

Exercise 1. Answer the following questions giving your opinion. Here are some words and word combinations to help you:

The access to information, to increase, to face challenges, to offer online courses and degrees, to attend classes at one’s convenience, face-to-face interaction, virtual school, home-schooling, to be available, to be taught different skills, to provide with information, to understand one’s needs, under supervision, a sense of responsibility towards something, to instill values, attitudes, to motivate, to encourage, to help to overcome problems, a human contact, to be necessary, to care about, to meet special needs, to understand, to communicate in a social manner, to perform better

 

  1. What is the teacher’s role in educating students?

__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

  1. Why will the role of teachers be more difficult in the future?

__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

  1. What is the role of computers in modern education nowadays?

__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

  1. In what educational process are computers the most beneficial?

__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

  1. Why do students need to be supervised?

__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

  1. What can’t computers do?

__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 Exercise 2. What are the arguments for and against replacing teachers by computers? Complete the following table:

For Against
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Exercise 3. Develop your arguments adding some justifications. Use the vocabulary from exercise 1. What position are you going to support?

 

 

 

                                                                  -11-

Exercise 4. Plan your essay. Complete the following paragraph plan for your essay, making notes on what you are going to include in each paragraph.

                An opinion essay plan

Paragraph 1 Introduction: restating the question in the task in different words:

It is believed:___________________________________________________________

Teachers will be completely replaced by computers:____________________________

______________________________________________________________________

 

Paragraph 2 My opinion:

1)

2)

 

 

Paragraph 3 Other people’s opinion:

1)

2)

 

 

Paragraph 4 Why I don’t agree with it:

1)

 

 

Paragraph 5 Conclusion: restating my opinion

 

 

 

 

Exercise 5. Write your essay. Follow the plan in the task.

 

Task 4 Comment on the following statement:

Some people think that is possible to get a good school education only at elite single-sex boarding schools abroad.

What’s your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?

Exercise 1. Read the following instructions from students’ essays. What is not logical? Which things need to be improved?

  1. Sending children to prestigious boarding schools is quite common nowadays, especially in the European countries. But is it really useful for them or is this kind of education much more harmful than it seems to be?
  2. Boarding schools are very popular nowadays. As everyone is aware, this is one of the most progressive ways of getting education. However, its own pluses and minuses as everything.
  3. Everyone can choose which school to go to. First of all, one will try to find out more about that school. Let is find some advantages and disadvantages of studying at a prestigious boarding school abroad.

Exercise 2. Write your variant of an introduction to this essay.

Restate the question in the task in different words:

Some people think:_______________________________________________________________________

To get good education: ____________________________________________________________________

Elite single-sex schools: ___________________________________________________________________

Abroad: ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

                                                                    -12-

Exercise 3. Read a conclusion from a student’s essay. Why will the student lose a point for the content and organisation?

Student’s opinion:

In my opinion, boarding schools are not the best places to get a good education …..

All things considered, personally I wouldn’t like to study at such a school because it would be very hard for me to leave my mother. Also, there are very severe rules there and I don’t like strict discipline because, to my mind, if these principles become the cornerstones of your life, you will be a serious, unsociable person. I don’t want to become such a dried-up woman, that’s why I don’t want to study at a boarding school.

 

Exercise 4. Which of the following arguments from the students’essays do you find the most logical and convincing? Put a tick (\/), a cross (+) or a question mark (?) next to them. Explain why.

  1. Some parents have no choice as they have to work outside the city and have not enough time to take care of their child so sending to a boarding school can be a necessary solution._____
  2. Living away from their families, children have to learn to be independent. Therefore, a child has to make their own decisions, to find new friends, find their own time to study and we can say that they mature faster.______
  3. To start with, students of such school aim high, so they work hard to achieve success. As a result, a student who has got into such educational environment will also try to do their best do as not to be worse than others. ______
  4. Moreover, they are disciplined; they respect their teachers and headmaster. Here we see students who want to study, who want to get perfect results and nothing else. ______
  5. First of all, these educational institutions usually provide excellent education, which is definitely good for students. So, children who studied at such schools are likely to enter a good university and then to get a highly-paid job. _______
  6. In addition, as such schools are usually expensive, not many children have a chance to get there. This means that teachers can pay them more attention than at ordinary schools and as a result, they are sure to get more knowledge. ________

Exercise 5. What is your opinion about getting education at elite single-sex boarding schools abroad? Write your essay. Follow the plan in the task.

    An opinion essay plan

Paragraph 1 Introduction: restating the question in the task in different words:

 

 

 

Paragraph 2 My opinion:

1)

2)

 

 

Paragraph 3 Other people’s opinion:

1)

2)

 

 

Paragraph 4 Why I don’t agree with it:

1)

 

 

Paragraph 5 Conclusion: restating my opinion

 

 

 

                                                                           -13-

Task 5 Comment on the following statement:

Many parents believe that it is not necessary to learn foreign language at school. It is enough to learn only English.

What’s your opinion? Do you agree with this statement? Write 200-250 words.

Exercise 1. Read the student’s essay. Analyse the content, organisation, vocabulary, grammar and spelling. Correct the mistakes. Put a tick (\/) if the line is correct.

                                     content           Mistake corrected
(1)   Nowadays most schools gives pupils a chance to learn foreign

(2)   languages. Some people think that only English should taught

(3)   at schools because this language is the most popular language

(4)   in the world. Others believe that another languages such as

(5)   German, French, Spanish should be taught too. To my mind the

(6)   variety of foreign languages should be in schools today.

1._____________________________

2.______________________________

3.______________________________

4. _____________________________

5. _____________________________

6.______________________________

(1)   Firstly, learning some foreign languages will increase your

(2)   brain’s abilities. Most of scientists believe that if you study two

(3)   or three foreign languages your memory’s skills are developing.

(4)   In fact, if a student have learned some foreign languages, he’ll

(5)   memorize poetry more faster than others. Secondly, learning

(6)   some foreign languages will help student to travel in the future.

(7)   In many countries people don’t know English, but they speak,

(8)   for example, French. Students, who learned this language at

(9)   school could ask for help everybody in this country.

1.______________________________

2.______________________________

3.______________________________

4.______________________________

5.______________________________

6.______________________________

7.______________________________

8.______________________________

9.______________________________

(1)   My opponents believe that many students don’t want to be

(2)   interpretors, so they don’t need two or three foreign languages

(3)   and in our world is going globalization, so we don’t need

(4)   foreign languages at school because they’ll disappear soon.

1.______________________________

2.______________________________

3.______________________________

4.______________________________

(1)   I can’t agree with them because students may have a wish to

(2)   change their job in the future and others professions need

(3)   knowledge of three foreign languages. So, this student may

(4)   have problems in the future. Moreover, globalization is

(5)   increased in low speed, so humanity will have spoken foreign

(6)   languages for many centuries.

1.______________________________

2.______________________________

3.______________________________

4.______________________________

5.______________________________

6.______________________________

(1)   To sum up, there’re many opinions on this theme, but mine is

(2)   More convenient for me.

1.______________________________2.______________________________

 

What are your comments about the content and organisation?

Paragraph1._________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Paragraph 2.___________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Paragraph 3.___________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Paragraph 4.___________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Paragraph 5.___________________________________________________________________________

                                                          -14-____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Exercise 2. Plan and write an essay expressing an opposing opinion.

 

Paragraph 1 Introduction: restating the question in the task in different words:

Many parents believe:____________________________________________________

It is  not necessary: _______________________________________________________

A second foreign language: ________________________________________________

It is enough to learn only English: ____________________________________________

 

Paragraph 2 My opinion:

1)

 

2)

 

 

Paragraph 3 Other people’s opinion:

1)

 

2)

 

 

Paragraph 4 Why I don’t agree with it:

1)

 

 

Paragraph 5 Conclusion: restating my opinion

 

 

 

Task 6. Choose one from the following topics and write an essay. What is your opinion?

Write 200-250 words.

  1. Some people think that learning foreign languages is a waste of time and money.
  2. There is an opinion that the English language will lose its function as a global language in the future.
  3. It is considered that you can master the language only in the native speaking environment.
  4. It is believed that a teacher’s main task is to make studying enjoyable for students.
  5. Some people think that boys and girls should study separately at different schools.
  6. In the future traditional classes will be replaced by distance learning.
  7. Students should pay the full cost of their own university studies, rather than have free higher education provided by the state.

Use the following plan:

  • make an introduction (state the problem)
  • express your personal opinion and give 2-3 reasons for your opinion
  • express an opposing opinion and give 1-2 reasons for this opposing opinion
  • explain why you don’t agree with the opposing opinion
  • draw a conclusion restating your position

                                                                  -15-

The natural world

Task 1. You have received a letter from your English pen friend Anna who writes:

…Personally, I can’t understand people who have pets at home. They don’t look after them properly. Do you have a pet? If yes, what kind of pet have you got? If not, would you like to have one and why? Do you think that people do enough to help animals, why or why not?

By the way, my Dad has changed his job….

Write a letter to Anna.

In your letter:

  • answer her questions
  • ask 3 questions about her dad’s new job

Write 100-140 words.

Remember the rules of letter writing.

 

Exercise 1. Read the student’s letter. Analyse the content, organisation, grammar, vocabulary and spelling. Correct the mistakes using the space at the end of each line.

Put a tick (\/) if the sentence is correct.

 

(1)Dear Anna,                                   (1)
(2)Many thanks for your letter. It was nice hearing from you (2)
(3)again. (3)
(4)As for your question, I don’t like pets at all and my mum (4)
(5)too, because we don’t have them at home. I don’t think that (5)
(6)peoples do enough to help animals becouse most of them (6)
(7)don’t like animals. They keep the, in zoos and try to protect. (7)
(8)I think I wouldn’t like to have pet because my mum don’t (8)
(9)likes them. (9)
(10)Wow! Great news! What job your father had? Was he (10)
(11)travelling to his job? He liked it, isn’t it? (11)
(12)That’s all for now. I must to go now. (12)
(13)Keep in touch, (13)
(14)Mag (14)

 

Answer the following questions to analyse the letter:

  1. Content:
  • How many words are there in the letter? ______
  • Have the following questions been answered?
  • Do you have a pet? If yes, what kind of pet have you got? ____
  • If not, would you like to have one and why?________
  • Do you think that people do enough to help animals, why or why not?_____
  • Are there 3 questions about father’s new job? _______
  • Have the rules of politeness been observed? _____
  • Is the style formal/ informal? ______
  1. Organisation:
  • Is the letter written logically? ___
  • Are the linking words used proper way? ____
  • Is the letter divided into paragraphs?___
  • Are the date and the address written correctly?___
  • Are the salutation, ending the letter, signing off and signature written on separate lines? ___
  1. How many grammar/ vocabulary/ spelling mistakes are there in the letter?____
  2. Improve the letter.

More writing practice

 

 

                                                                 -16-

  1. You have received a letter from your English-speaking friend Andrew who writes:

Yesterday I watched the news about Green movement march. Why do you think people in different countries support Green movement? Do you think we can save the environment? Why or why not? Do you do anything to protect the environment in your city?

As for the school news, I’ve just joined the drama club…

  1. This a part of a letter from your American pen friend Jason who writes:

We got stuck in traffic jam in the morning and I was late for school. Are traffic jams a problem in your city? What do you think can be done to solve it? Are there any other problems in the place you live in that people worry about?

By the way, my friends are working as volunteers at the Zoo now …..

  1. You have received a letter from your English-speaking friend Susan who writes:

I have always thought of doing some voluntary work to help our environment. Could you advise me what environmental organisations to join? How old do volunteers need to be? Do they require any working experience?

I am very happy now because I have the last exams …..

  1. You have received a letter from your English-speaking friend Paul who writes:

Yesterday I watched a programme about extinct animals. I was greatly impressed! Could you tell me what people in your country do to save animals? Are there any animal-lovers organisations in your city?  Would you like to take part in an ecological movement? Why or why not?

By the way, we’re going to the National Park next Sunday …

 

Essay writing

Task 1 Comment on the following statement:

Genetic science has gone too far.

What’s your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?

Write 200-250 words.

Use the following plan:

  • make an introduction (state the problem)
  • express your personal opinion and give 2-3 reasons for your opinion
  • express an opposing opinion and give 1-2 reasons for this opposing opinion
  • explain why you don’t agree with the opposing opinion
  • draw a conclusion restating your position

Exercise 1. Read the following paragraphs from students’ essays. Which paragraph focuses on the topic? Put a tick (\/) and explain why.

  1. In my opinion, human experiments are extremely dangerous because there are huge risks of abnormalities in human clones. As a result, clones will obviously have serious psychological problems connected with their unusual birth or appearance. What is more, there is no doubt that human cloning will change our perception of what the value of human life is as we might choose not having children but manufacturing them.
  2. There are several reasons why I am in favour of such research. Firstly, it may give us a chance to trace diseases and save lives of millions people. Moreover, by means of genetic engineering we can be sure that children are born free of many genetic disorders. Furthermore, developing the techniques of cloning domestic animals we might solve the problem of hunger in many countries, providing people with plenty of food.
  3. To sum up, I would like to say that we must question human cloning is really worth the problems it raises. From my point of view, cloning should be under tight control, because it is dangerous to interfere with nature and the consequences can be really disastrous.

Exercise 2. Read paragraphs 3 and 4 from a student’s essay. Analyse the content and organisation:

However, there are people who consider that genetic science is a positive way of development. They think that genetic engineering, for example, is the key to solving the world’s famine problems. I don’t agree with them, as the problems we can face because of it are even more frightening than the famine problems. Other people say that it’s just a medical procedure, so it isn’t dangerous. However, this is a procedure at the molecular level, so it is a very difficult operation.

                                                                    -17-___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

Exercise 3. Brainstorm some ideas for and against science that you want to include in your essay. Use the following vocabulary to help you:

  • DNA sequencing technology, to track the path of the infection, to be a solution to many problems, to eliminate terminal illnesses, to save millions of people, GMO products, to offer a time-saving method, to produce larger, higher-quality crops with less effort and expense, to manage ecosystems, to help to preserve endangered animals, to use farm animals for drug production, to be used to identify individuals
  • To change the way things happen naturally, to pose many risks, the risks of changing the genetic makeup of organisms, to be toxic or allergenic to certain individuals, to replace traditional farming, to destroy economic systems, to have the potential long-term impacts of genetically modified plants on the environment, to cause suffering and harm to the animals involved, the high cost, not to be worth the possible benefits, human errors may occur

 

Exercise 4. Complete the table. Match the words from exercise 3 with the ideas in the left column. Use the given vocabulary to develop counter-arguments to complete the right part in the column.

For genetic science Against genetic science
1)      DNA sequencing technology (diseases)

 

 

 

 

1)

 

 

2)      GMO products

 

 

 

 

2)      There is concern that such products may be toxic or allergenic to certain individuals.

 

3)      helps to preserve animals in danger

 

 

 

 

3)
4)      to use farm animals for drug production

 

 

 

 

4)
5)      DNA can be used to identify individuals (missing people, criminals, relatives)

 

 

 

5)

 

Exercise 5. Write an introduction to the essay. Restate the question in the task in different words:

Genetic science:____________________________________________________________________

has gone to far:__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________                                                                                                                                                                                                                       

                                                                    -18-

_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

Exercise 6. What position are you going to support? What ideas from exercise 3 will you use?

Complete the following paragraph plan for your essay making notes on what you are going to include in each paragraph.

                                              An opinion essay plan

Paragraph 1 Introduction: restating the question in the task in different words:

 

 

 

Paragraph 2 My opinion:

1)

2)

 

 

Paragraph 3 Other people’s opinion:

1)

2)

 

 

Paragraph 4 Why I don’t agree with it:

1)

 

 

Paragraph 5 Conclusion: restating my opinion

 

 

 

 

Exercise 7. Write your essay. Check it for vocabulary, grammar and spelling mistakes.

 

Task 2 Comment on the following statement:

Animal testing should be banned.

Exercise 1. Write an introduction to an essay. Restate the idea in the task using some other words:

Animal testing:________________________________________________________________________

should be banned:______________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

Exercise 2. Answer the following questions and brainstorm the ideas for your arguments. Use the following words to help you:

To be breakthrough, to be an essential part of one’s job, to find cure for human diseases, to struggle against/ cure cancer/ diabetes, to get the information needed, to make progress, to develop thousands of vaccines, to save millions of children’s lives

 

To kill, to harm, to murder, to die from testing, to be treated in a hush way, to fail on humans, to be in an unusual environment, to be scared, to be stressed, not to be accurate, to create a cure that works both for animals and people, to have alternatives, bio-engineering and computer modeling, micro dosing or artificial skin, to provide with more accurate results, to be a much faster and cheaper method; to have the right to live/ choose, to have emotions, thoughts, ideas, feelings; to suffer

                                                                      -19-

  • Do you know when scientists first started experimenting on living animals? What were the results?

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  • What medical advances have these experiments led to? Think about the following:

Treatment for diseases:

__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  • Why might some people be against animal testing? Think about:

The ethics: How are animals treated during the experiments?

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Money: Why can such experiments be a waste of money? Why are they not always accurate?

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Alternatives: What alternative technologies could be used instead?

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Animals’rights

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  • What is your attitude to this issue? Do you think that animal testing should be allowed?

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Exercise 3. Plan your essay. What opinion are you going to support?

Complete the following paragraph plan for your essay making notes on what you are going to include in each paragraph.

                                              An opinion essay plan

Paragraph 1 Introduction: restating the question in the task in different words:

 

 

 

Paragraph 2 My opinion:

1)

2)

 

 

Paragraph 3 Other people’s opinion:

1)

2)

 

 

Paragraph 4 Why I don’t agree with it:

1)

 

 

Paragraph 5 Conclusion: restating my opinion

 

 

                                                                       -20-                             

Exercise 4. Write your essay. Check it for vocabulary, grammar and spelling mistakes.

 

Task 3 Comment on the following statement:

It is useless to change one’s personal lifestyle to save the environment.

Exercise 1. Write an introduction to an essay. Restate the idea in the task using some other words:

To change a lifestyle:__________________________________________________________________

To be useless:________________________________________________________________________

To save the environment:_______________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

Exercise 2. Answer the following questions and brainstorm the ideas for your arguments. Use the following words to help you:

Water supply, air and water pollution, climate change, global warming and the greenhouse effect, to avoid letting water run continuously/ leaving taps partially open, to help greatly in conserving water, to save natural resources, to use solar and wind energy-saving light bulbs, to use biofuel, to switch off unnecessary devices, to contribute to the environment protecting campaign;

To protect/ take care of plants and trees around the house, to plant trees, to improve ecosystem, to try to limit the demand for wooden furniture, to reduce the number of cut off trees;

To keep your living environment clean, to be aware of this issue, to be much cleaner and purer, to have a bigger impact on the planet at large, individual choices, to make a big difference

  • What environmental problems are thought to be the most important nowadays?

__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  • What are the reasons for these problems?

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  • What can a person do to contribute to the environment protection? Think about the following things:

Drinking water supply

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Saving energy

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Saving trees and plants

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Keeping your living environment clean

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  • Why might people think that making personal lifestyle changes will never save the environment?

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

 

                                                            -21-

  • What is your opinion about the problem?

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

Exercise 3. Plan your essay. What opinion are you going to support?

Complete the following paragraph plan for your essay making notes on what you are going to include in each paragraph.

                                              An opinion essay plan

Paragraph 1 Introduction: restating the question in the task in different words:

 

 

 

Paragraph 2 My opinion:

1)

2)

 

 

Paragraph 3 Other people’s opinion:

1)

2)

 

 

Paragraph 4 Why I don’t agree with it:

1)

 

 

Paragraph 5 Conclusion: restating my opinion

 

 

 

 

Exercise 4. Write your essay. Check it for vocabulary, grammar and spelling mistakes.

 

Task 4. Choose one from the following topics and write an essay. What is your opinion?

Write 200-250 words.

  1. Animals should not be kept in zoos.
  2. The life of animals in a zoo is safer and happier than in their natural habitat.
  3. Keeping birds in cages is cruel.
  4. Bikes should be used in city centres instead of cars.
  5. Cloning is the solution to our health problems.
  6. Some people say eating meat is wrong.
  7. All hunting should be banned.

Use the following plan:

  • make an introduction (state the problem)
  • express your personal opinion and give 2-3 reasons for your opinion
  • express an opposing opinion and give 1-2 reasons for this opposing opinion
  • explain why you don’t agree with the opposing opinion
  • draw a conclusion restating your position

 

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